Obesity and treatment methods

 Defining Rotundity

There are numerous ways in which a person's health in relation to their weight can be classified, but the most extensively habituated system is the body mass indicator( BMI).

You can use the BMI healthy weight map to work out your score.

BMI is not used to definitively diagnose rotundity, because people who are veritably muscular occasionally have a high BMI without redundant fat.

For utmost people, BMI is a useful suggestion of whether they are a healthy weight, fat or fat.

A better measure of redundant fat is midriff circumference, which can be used as a fresh measure in people who are fat or relatively fat.

Men with a midriff circumference of 94 cm( 37in) or further and women with a midriff circumference of 80 cm or further are more likely to develop rotundity-related health problems.

rotundity can affect your quality of life and lead to cerebral problems, similar as depression and low tone- regard

Causes of rotundity

Obesity is usually caused by consuming more calories – those in fatty and sugary foods – than you burn off through physical activity.

The excess energy is stored by the body as fat.

Obesity is an increasingly common problem because for several people modern living involves eating excessive amounts of cheap, high-calorie food and spending plenty of time sitting down, at desks, on sofas, or in cars.

There are some underlying health conditions that will occasionally contribute to weight gain, like an underactive thyroid gland, these sorts of conditions don’t usually cause weight problems if they're effectively controlled with medication

Treating obesity

The best way to treat obesity is to eat a healthy, reduced-calorie diet and exercise regularly.

If lifestyle changes alone don't facilitate your loss of weight, a medicine called orlistat may be recommended

If taken correctly, this medication works by reducing the quantity of fat you absorb during digestion.

The average physically active man needs about 2,500 calories each day to maintain a healthy weight, and therefore the average physically active woman needs about 2,000 calories each day 

This amount of calories may sound high, but it is often easy to reach if you eat certain types of food.

Eating an outsized takeaway hamburger, fries and a milkshake can total 1,500 calories – and that is just one meal

Another problem is that a lot of people aren't physically active, so plenty of the calories they consume end up being stored in their body as fat

Poor diet

It develops gradually over time, as a result of poor diet and lifestyle choices, such as: eating large amounts of processed or nutriment – that's high in fat and sugar drinking too much alcohol – alcohol contains a lot of calories, and other people who drink heavily are often overweight eating out a lot – you may be tempted to have a starter or dessert in a restaurant, and therefore the food can be higher in fat and sugar eating larger portions than you need – you may be encouraged to eat too much if your friends or relatives are eating large portions comfort eating – if you have low self-esteem or feel depressed, you'll eat to make yourself feel better.

You may learn bad eating habits from your parents when you're young and continue them into adulthood

Lack of physical activity

Many people have jobs that involve sitting at a desk for most of the day.

They depend on their cars, instead of walking or cycling.

The Department of Health recommends that adults do a minimum of 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, like cycling or fast walking, hebdomadally.

This doesn’t have to be done all in one go but is often broken down into smaller periods.

If you're obese and trying to reduce, you'll need to do more exercise than this.

It may help to start off slowly and gradually increase the amount of exercise you do each week

Read more about the physical activity guidelines for adults

Some people claim there is no point in trying to lose weight because "it runs in the author's family" or "it's in the author's genes".

While there are some rare genetic conditions which will cause obesity, like Prader-Willi syndrome, there is no reason why most people can't lose weight.

It may be true that certain genetic traits inherited from your parents – such as having a large appetite – may make losing weight more difficult, but it certainly doesn't make it impossible.

Obesity is more to try to do with environmental factors like poor eating habits learned during childhood

Medical reasons

n some cases, underlying medical conditions may contribute to weight gain.

These include Cushing's syndrome – a rare disorder that causes the over-production of steroid hormones.

If conditions like these are properly diagnosed and treated, they ought to pose less of a barrier to weight loss.

Certain medicines, including some corticosteroids, medications for epilepsy and diabetes, and a few medications used to treat mental illness – including antidepressants and medicines for schizophrenia – can contribute to weight gain

Diagnosing obesity

Body mass index (BMI) is widely used as an easy and reliable way of finding out whether a person is a healthy weight for their height.

A person with a BMI of 25 to 29.9 is taken into account to be overweight, and someone with a BMI over 30 is taken into account to be obese.

The normal BMI scores may not be accurate if you're very muscular because the muscle can add extra pounds, leading to a high BMI when you're not an unhealthy weight.

In such cases, your waist circumference could also be a better guide.

What's considered a healthy BMI is influenced by your ethnic background.

If you've got an ethnic minority background, the edge for being considered overweight or obese may be lower.

Speak to your GP if you would like to find out whether your child is overweight

Visiting your GP

If you're overweight or obese, visit your GP for advice about losing weight safely and to seek out whether you have an increased risk of health problems.

If you've got underlying problems associated with obesity, like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), high vital signs, diabetes or obstructive sleep apnoea, your GP may recommend further tests or specific treatment.

In some cases, they'll refer you to a specialist.

There's no single rule that applies to everyone, but to reduce at a safe and sustainable rate of 0.5 to 1kg (1lb to 2lbs) every week, most people are advised to reduce their energy intake by 600 calories a day

For most men, this may mean consuming no quite 1,900 calories each day, and for many women, no more than 1,400 calories each day.

Be careful when eating out because some foods can quickly take you over the limit, like burgers, fried chicken, and a few curries or Chinese dishes

Diet programmes and fad diets

Avoid fad diets that recommend unsafe practices, like fasting or cutting out entire food groups.

These sorts of diets don't work, can cause you to feel ill, and are not sustainable because they don’t teach you long-term healthy eating habits.

This isn't to say that all commercial diet programmes are unsafe.

A responsible diet programme should: educate you about issues like portion size, making behavioural changes and healthy eating not be overly restrictive in terms of the sort of foods you can eat be based on achieving gradual, sustainable weight loss instead of short-term rapid weight loss, which is unlikely to last

Very low-calorie diets

A very low-calorie diet (VLCD) is where you consume less than 800 calories a day

These diets can cause rapid weight loss, but they are not a suitable or safe method for everyone, and they aren't routinely recommended for managing obesity.

As well as helping you maintain a healthy weight, physical activity has wider health benefits.

It can help prevent and manage quite 20 conditions, like reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes by 40%.

You should do strength and balance training two days a week

This could be in the form of a gym workout, carrying shopping bags, or doing an activity like tai chi.

Read more about the physical activity guidelines for adults and therefore the physical activity guidelines for older adults

Other useful strategies

Evidence has shown that weight loss is often more successful if it involves other strategies, alongside diet and lifestyle changes

This could include things like eating more slowly and being mindful of what and when you're eating – for example, not being distracted by watching TV avoiding situations where you recognize you may be tempted to overeat involving your family and friends with your weight loss efforts –they can help to motivate you monitoring your progress – for example, weigh yourself regularly and make a note of your weight during a diary.

Getting psychological support from a trained healthcare professional may facilitate your change in the way you think about food and eating.

Techniques like cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can be useful

Avoiding weight regain

It's important to remember that as you lose weight your body needs less food, so after some months, weight loss slows and levels off, whether or not you continue to follow a diet.

You can only use orlistat if a doctor or pharmacist thinks it's the right medicine for you.

One product (Alli) is out there over the counter directly from pharmacies, under the supervision of a pharmacist.

Orlistat works by preventing around a 3rd of the fat from the food you eat is absorbed.

The undigested fat isn't absorbed into your body and is passed out together with your faeces.

This will help you avoid gaining weight, but won't necessarily cause you to reduce.

A diet and exercise programme should be started before beginning treatment with orlistat, and you ought to continue this programme during treatment and after you stop taking orlistat

When orlistat should be used

Orlistat will usually only be recommended if you've made a big effort to lose weight through diet, exercise or changing your lifestyle.

Orlistat is merely prescribed if you have a: body mass index (BMI) of 28 or more, and other weight-related conditions, like high vital signs or type 2 diabetes.

Your doctor will discuss the advantages and potential limitations with you, including any potential side effects.

Treatment with orlistat must be combined with a balanced diet and other weight loss strategies, like doing more exercise.

It's important that the diet is nutritionally balanced over three main meals.

If you're prescribed orlistat, you will be offered advice and support about diet, exercise and making lifestyle changes.

Orlistat isn't usually recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding women

Dosage and duration of treatment

One orlistat capsule is crazy water immediately before, during or up to at least one hour after, each main meal.

If you miss a meal, or the meal doesn't contain any fat, you should not need to take the orlistat capsule.

Your doctor should explain this to you, otherwise, you can check the patient information leaflet that comes with your medicine.

Treatment with orlistat should only continue beyond three months if you've lost 5% of your weight.

It usually starts to affect how you digest fat within one to two days.

If you haven't lost weight after taking orlistat for 3 months, it's unlikely to be an efficient treatment for you.

Consult your doctor or pharmacist, because it may be necessary to stop your treatment

Taking orlistat with other health conditions

See your GP before starting treatment with orlistat if you've got another serious health condition, like type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, or renal disorder, which you are taking medication for.

It may be necessary to change the dose of your medicine.

If you've got type 2 diabetes, it's going to take you longer to lose weight using orlistat, so your target weight loss after three months could also be slightly lower.

If orlistat has helped you reduce after three months, your prescription could also be continued for up to a year.

Your GP will perform a review and decide whether you should continue taking it

Side effects

Common side effects of orlistat include fatty or oily stools needing the restroom urgently passing stools more frequently an oily discharge from your rectum flatulence stomach pain headaches upper respiratory tract infections, like a cold.

Bariatric surgery is typically only available on the NHS to treat people with severe obesity who fulfil all of the following criteria: they have a BMI of 40 or more, or between 35 and 40 and another serious health condition that would be improved with weight loss, like type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure all appropriate non-surgical measures have been tried, but the person hasn't achieved or maintained adequate, clinically beneficial weight loss the person is fit enough to possess anaesthesia and surgery the person has been receiving or will receive, intensive management as a part of their treatment the person commits to the need for long-term follow-up.

Surgery could also be recommended as the first treatment if a person's BMI is 50 or above


Remember that even losing what looks like a small amount of weight, like 3% or more of your original body weight, and maintaining this for all times, can significantly reduce your risk of developing obesity-related complications like diabetes and heart condition

Treating obesity in children

Treating obesity in children usually involves improvements to diet and increasing physical activity using behaviour change strategies.

Children over the age of 5 should ideally get at least one hour (60 minutes) of vigorous-intensity exercise a day, like running or playing football or netball.

Sedentary activities, like watching television and playing computer games, should be restricted.

Referral to a specialist in treating childhood obesity could also be recommended if your child develops an obesity-related complication, or if there's thought to be an underlying medical condition causing obesity.

The use of orlistat in children is only recommended in exceptional circumstances, like if a child is severely obese and has an obesity-related complication.

Bariatric surgery isn't generally recommended for youngsters but may be considered for young people in exceptional circumstances, and if they've achieved, or nearly achieved, physiological maturity

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